By Kasugai, Yu; Machtoub, Lina
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Additional info for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : advances and perspectives of neuro-nanomedicine
What started as the discovery of an unknown disease in Guam has spread to a line of ominous ﬁndings about some of our machtoub–ALS October 23, 2015 12:42 PSP Book - 9in x 6in Are Toxins in Seafood Causing ALS? most debilitating conditions and potential toxins lurking in bodies of water around the world. There have been several studies to understand that risk by tracking how BMAA moves through the food chain in Florida waters where regular cyanobacteria blooms occur. It has been shown that only few of the ﬁsh and shellﬁsh specimens contain BMAA.
MRI takes very high resolution pictures of the inside of the brain and the spinal cord, which contains high numbers of upper motor neurons. The main use of MRI is to rule out other conditions that can mimic, or appear very similar to, ALS. These include compression of the spinal cord from a slipped disc or fracture of the spine, as well as strokes and multiple sclerosis. Unlike with these other conditions, an MRI scan appears normal in a person with ALS. Conventional MR imaging ﬁndings Routine anatomic imaging of the brain and/or the spinal cord is helpful in ruling out diseases that mimic ALS with varying degrees of UMN and LMN signs.
Laboratory tests are used to eliminate other possible diagnoses. For this reason, muscle enzyme creatine kinase (CK) is tested to make sure the weakness is not due to muscle disease. 1 Tests. Healthcare providers would run thorough neurological examination to diagnose ALS based on electrodiagnostic tests, including electromyography and nerve conduction velocity, blood and urine studies, spinal tap, x-rays, and muscle and/or nerve biopsy. (Fig. 1). The diagnosis of ALS is made possible by following history, physical, and appropriate neurological examinations to ascertain clinical ﬁndings, which may suggest suspected, possible, probable, or deﬁnite ALS; electrophysiological examinations to ascertain ﬁndings which conﬁrm LMN degeneration in clinically involved regions, identify LMN degeneration in clinically uninvolved regions, and exclude other disorders; neuroimaging examinations to ascertain ﬁndings which may exclude other disease processes; clinical laboratory examinations, determined by clinical judgment, to ascertain possible ALS-related syndromes; neuropathological examinations, where appropriate, to ascertain ﬁndings which may conﬁrm or exclude sporadic ALS, coexistent sporadic ALS, ALSrelated syndromes, or ALS variants; and repetition of clinical and machtoub–ALS October 23, 2015 12:42 PSP Book - 9in x 6in machtoub–ALS Steps in the Diagnosis of ALS 37 electrophysiological examinations at least six months apart to ascertain evidence of progression.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : advances and perspectives of neuro-nanomedicine by Kasugai, Yu; Machtoub, Lina