By April McMahon
It is a brief, full of life, and available creation to the sounds of contemporary English. Its emphasis on version, with examples from British, American, New Zealand, and Singaporean English, make it compatible for either local and non-native audio system. McMahon makes a speciality of the vowels and consonants, but in addition discusses syllables, pressure, and the phonology of phrases and words. She introduces new instruments and terminology progressively, and discusses the inducement for key concepts.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to English Phonology
These rules have the same format as the redundancy rules proposed above; but instead of stating generalisations about necessary 02 pages 1-150 44 18/10/01 1:14 pm Page 44 AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONOLOGY combinations of features, or excluded combinations, they summarise processes which take place in the structure of a particular language, in a certain context. (9) +nasal +alveolar – labial – dental – velar +nasal +alveolar – dental – labial – velar +nasal +alveolar – velar – labial –dental → – alveolar +labial /____ [+labial] → – alveolar +dental /____ [+dental] → – alveolar +velar /____ [+velar] … and so on In these rules, the material furthest left is the input to the process, or what we start with – nasals with different place features in each case.
5 Natural classes The major class features identify several categories of sounds which recur cross-linguistically in different phonological rules. Feature notation can also show why certain sounds behave similarly in similar contexts, within these larger classes. For instance, English /p/, /t/ and /k/ aspirate at the beginnings of words. All three may also be glottally reinforced at the ends of words. All three are unaspirated after /s/; and no other English phoneme has the same range of allophones, in the same environments.
When you make [ ] you can feel that the back of your tongue is pressed against the roof of your mouth, stopping air from moving any further back; a little air is then drawn into the mouth further forward, and the closure with the tongue is released to make a click. Neither the glottalic nor the velaric airstreams provide airﬂow with the volume or controllability of the pulmonic system. 2 Voiced or voiceless? A major division among speech sounds which is relevant for all languages is the dichotomy of voiced and voiceless.
An Introduction to English Phonology by April McMahon