By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth variation Preface to 3rd version Preface to moment version Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists learn? what's a sociolinguist? Why can we say an analogous factor in numerous methods? What are the various methods we are saying issues? Social elements, dimensions and causes part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups selecting your sort or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in numerous groups Language dying and language loss components contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic kinds and multilingual international locations Vernacular languages regular languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and legit languages making plans for a countrywide professional language constructing a typical style in Norway The linguist's function in language making plans part II: Language version: concentrate on clients 6. local and social dialects nearby version Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech changes: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech gains: social dialect learn Gender and social category reasons of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded beneficial properties of speech Age and social dialect facts Age grading and language swap eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language switch version and alter How do adjustments unfold? How can we examine language swap? purposes for language swap part III: Language edition: specialize in makes use of 10. kind, context and sign up Addressee as a power on sort lodging thought Context, kind and sophistication variety in non-Western societies check in eleven. Speech capabilities, politeness and cross-cultural communique The capabilities of speech Politeness and tackle varieties Linguistic politeness in several cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self assurance interplay Gossip The linguistic development of gender The linguistic development of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and belief Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social classification, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness thought Ethnography of conversing Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) severe Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and functions Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols thesaurus Index
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Extra resources for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Switch between Spanish and English) In (a), Tamati uses a Maori tag at the beginning of his utterance while the Mandarin speaker in (b) uses a final tag. This kind of switching is sometimes called emblematic switching or tag switching. The switch is simply an interjection or a linguistic tag in the other language which serves as an ethnic identity marker. The exchange in (c), for instance, occurred between two Mexican Americans or Chicanos in the USA. By using the Spanish tag, M signalled to A that she recognised the relevance of their shared ethnic background to their future relationship.
How would you rate your knowledge? What factors are relevant to your assessment? Do these include social factors? (b) Using the information provided in the section above, which varieties do you think Kalala will use to (i) talk to his younger brother at home? (ii) plan the morning’s activities with his best friend? (iii) greet a stranger from a different tribe whom he met in the street? Answers at end of chapter Domains of language use Example 2 ’Anahina is a bilingual Tongan New Zealander living in Auckland.
The function: why are they speaking? In this book, the focus is on speech, but the same questions can be asked about written communication, as example 5 above illustrated. Throughout this book, these social factors will prove important in describing and analysing all kinds of interaction. They are basic components in sociolinguistic explanations of why we don’t all speak the same way, and why we don’t all speak in the same way all of the time. Social dimensions In addition to these components, it is useful to take account of four different dimensions for analysis which relate to the factors above and which have been only implicit in the discussion so far.
An introduction to sociolinguistics by Janet Holmes.