By Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche
The creation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) 25 years in the past revolutionized scientific imaging; X-ray CT itself supplied the 1st transparent cross-sectional photos of the human physique, with large distinction among kinds of gentle tissue. the iconic legacy of CT is, even if, the spur that it gave to the following advent of tomographic imaging options into diagnostic nuclear medication and the terribly speedy improvement of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over this era.
This booklet is a non-mathematical advent to the foundations underlying sleek clinical imaging, taking tomography as its critical subject. the 1st 3 chapters disguise the final rules of tomography, a survey of the atomic and nuclear physics which underpins glossy imaging, and a evaluate of the foremost concerns all in favour of radiation defense. the following chapters deal in flip with X-ray radiography, gamma imaging, MRI and ultrasound. The scientific function of diagnostic imaging is illustrated within the ultimate bankruptcy by utilizing fictional medical histories. 3 appendices supply a extra mathematical history to the tomographic process, the foundations of mathematical Fourier equipment, and the maths of MRI.
This revised version contains new introductory sections at the appropriate physics of molecules normally, and water, particularly. each bankruptcy now has a desk of key issues with cross-references to different sections. numerous figures have additionally been revised.
The e-book is meant to supply a large introductory historical past to tomographic imaging for 2 teams of readers: the physics or engineering undergraduate contemplating focusing on clinical physics, and the scientific scholar or clinician utilizing tomographic strategies in examine and scientific perform.
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Additional resources for An introduction to the principles of medical imaging
MRI is still a relative newcomer to medicine with many important new developments still to come, both in applications and technique. Although standard MRI images require many minutes of scanning, the more recent widespread introduction of fast imaging schemes such as Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) and Echo Planar imaging (EPI) allows a single data slice to be acquired in 50 ms. Since 1990 there has been a rapid growth of interest in, and development of, what is called functional MRI or fMRI. It is thought that this very new technique is capable of providing images of brain activity on a time-scale of a few seconds.
6 Imaging Movement and Flow Time of Flight Methods Phase Contrast Methods 6. 3 The Classical Picture of NMR Excitation Using Radiofrequency Waves Rotating Frames of Reference in Dynamics 353 354 356 360 361 $KDNKQITCRJ[ +PFGZ This page intentionally left blank Introduction An Historical Background to Medical Imaging Until the beginning of the last century, the investigative tools available to clinical medicine amounted to the microscope, the thermometer, the knife and the stethoscope.
First a single slice is selected. Next a complete set of projections of that slice is obtained. Finally the set of projections are recombined, using a mathematical recipe, to form a reconstructed image of the slice. 5 Tomography interpretation of the shadow from another. By concentrating on one thin slice at time, this confusion can be avoided. Thus the starting point for most tomographic image reconstruction is a set of shadows or projections of a particular thin 2D slice through the patient. The Numbers in a Box Puzzle The process of tomographic image reconstruction can be thought of as a way of solving the following puzzle.
An introduction to the principles of medical imaging by Chris Guy, Dominic Ffytche