By Gabriel Altmann, Fan Fengxiang (editors)
This quantity offers 12 papers on a brand new method of the research of writing structures. For the 1st time, quantitative equipment are brought into this region of study in a scientific manner. the person contributions supply an summary approximately quantitative houses of symbols and of writing platforms, introduce equipment of study, examine person writing platforms as used for various languages, arrange an explanatory version of phenomena attached to script development/evolution, and provides a point of view to a common conception of writing platforms.
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Additional resources for Analyses of Script: Properties of Characters and Writing Systems
B (6) Px = Solving (5) we obtain Px = representing the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution (cf. Wimmer & Altmann 1999) already used in linguistics, being a special case of the Wimmer-Altmann (2005) approach. Since there is no “zero-length” grapheme, we either solve (5) for x = 2, 3, . . or we displace (6) one step to the right, in order to obtain ax−1 , x = 1, 2, 3, . . e. T is identical with (P0 )−1 . 39 Applying (7) to our data we obtain the observed and computed values as given in Table 3.
Hence, another measure of uncertainty is the entropy of ﬁrst order taking into account the relative frequencies of individual representations. Usually one uses the Shannon entropy deﬁned as K H1 = − ∑ pi log2 pi (2) i=1 where K is the number of representations and we estimate pi by fi /N, where fi is the absolute frequency, N being the number of occurrences of representations of the given phoneme (N = Σ fi ). The more concentrated the frequencies, the smaller the uncertainty H1 . In order to illustrate the computation, we use the representations of /TH/, where there are N = 741 cases distributed to graphemic variants in proportions: 1, 736, 3, 1.
Let us call this property graphemic polyphonemics. The great majority of graphemes is, Graphemic representation of English phonemes 35 of course, monophonemic: it can be ascribed only to one phoneme. We distinguish direct ascription of a grapheme to a phoneme from the fact that a phoneme is part of a grapheme. g. /k/ is directly represented by
Analyses of Script: Properties of Characters and Writing Systems by Gabriel Altmann, Fan Fengxiang (editors)